Earlier this month Daniel, Lars and myself got together to discuss Bryan Cantrill’s article Rust after the honeymoon. This is an overview of what keeps him enjoying working with Rust after having used it for an extended period of time for low level systems work at Oxide, we were particularly interested to read a perspective from someone who was both very experienced in general and had been working with the language for a while. While I have no experience with Rust both Lars and Daniel have been using it for a while and greatly enjoy it.
One of the first areas we discussed was data bearing enums – these have been very important to Bryan. In keeping with a pattern we all noted these take a construct that’s relatively commonly implemented by hand in C (or skipped as too much effort, as Lars found) and provides direct support in the language for it. For both Daniel and Lars this has been key to their enjoyment of Rust, it makes things that are good practice or common idioms in C and C++ into first class language features which makes them more robust and allows them to fade into the background in a way they can’t when done by hand.
Daniel was also surprised by some omissions, some small such as the ? operator but others much more substantial – the standout one being editions. These aim to address the problems seen with version transitions in other languages like Python, allowing individual parts of a Rust program to adopt potentially incompatible language features while remaining interoperability with older editions of the language rather than requiring the entire program to be upgraded en masse. This helps Rust move forwards with less need to maintain strict source level compatibility, allowing much more rapid evolution and helping deal with any issues that are found. Lars expressed the results of this very clearly, saying that while lots of languages offer a 20%/80% solution which does very well in specific problem domains but has issues for some applications Rust is much more able to move towards a much more general applicability by addressing problems and omissions as they are understood.
This distracted us a bit from the actual content of the article and we had an interesting discussion of the issues with handling OS differences in filenames portably. Rather than mapping filenames onto a standard type within the language and then have to map back out into whatever representation the system actually uses Rust has an explicit type for filenames which must be explicitly converted on those occasions when it’s required, meaning that a lot of file handling never needs to worry about anything except the OS native format and doesn’t run into surprises. This is in keeping with Rust’s general approach to interfacing with things that can’t be represented in its abstractions, rather than hide things it keeps track of where things that might break the assumptions it makes are and requires the programmer to acknowledge and handle them explicitly. Both Lars and Daniel said that this made them feel a lot more confident in the code that they were writing and that they had a good handle on where complexity might lie, Lars noted that Rust is the first languages he’s felt comfortable writing multi threaded code in.
We all agreed that the effect here was more about having idioms which tend to be robust and both encourage writing things well and gives readers tools to help know where particular attention is required – no tooling can avoid problems entirely. This was definitely an interesting discussion for me with my limited familiarity with Rust, hopefully Daniel and Lars also got a lot out of it!